womensheart

Heart Disease

  • Hispanics have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than Caucasians and are less aware of their cardiovascular risk 1
  • Among Hispanic-American women, 5% have cardiovascular disease.1

Care and Treatment

  • Language barriers may lead to poorer health outcomes among 2
  • Compared with Caucasian women, Hispanic women are nearly three times as likely to be 3

Health Risks

  • 4% of Hispanic-American women have total blood cholesterol levels of 200 mg/dL or higher, and 13.7% have levels of 240 mg/dL or higher.1
  • 1% of Hispanic-American women do not meet the 2008 Federal Aerobic and Strengthening PA Guidelines for Adults. (consisting of either 150 minutes of moderate leisure-time physical activity per week or 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week).1
  • 3% of Hispanic-American women are overweight or obese.1
  • 9% of Hispanic-American women have high blood pressure.1
  • Nearly 17% of Hispanic women say they are in fair or poor health, compared with 11% of Caucasian 4
  • Prevalence for diabetes in Hispanic-American women is almost twice as high as Caucasian women (11.8% 6.1%).1
  1. Mozaffarian, Dariush, MD, DrPH, FAHA, Benjamin, Emelia J., MD, ScM, FAHA, Go, Alan , MD, et. al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2016 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 2016. Pages 48 Chart 4-4; 148; 151 Table 13-1; 319 Table 26-2.
  2. McDonough, Manuela, Kamasaki, Charles, al. An Inside Look at Chronic Disease and Health Care among Hispanics in the United States: A report of the National Council of La Raza Institute for Hispanic Health, 2014.
  1. Dominguez, Kenneth, Penman-Aguilar, Ana, et. al. Vital Signs: Leading Causes of Death, Prevalence of Diseases and Risk Factors, and Use of Health Services Among Hispanics in the United States — 2009-2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
  2. Pleis J R, Lucas J W. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2007. Vital Health Stat 10, 2009; No. 240: 1-159.
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By: Jacob S. Minor, MD, FACS Wellstone Ear, Nose and Throat

You might be surprised to find out that there is a vaccine that can protect your kids from certain common cancers. Then again, many people are surprised that some cancers are caused by sexually-transmitted viruses. The most common cause of these is the human papillomavirus (HPV), which has over 150 unique types. Some types of HPV cause common warts on the hands or feet. Other types cause genital warts and can be spread even with condom use because of adjacent skin contact. Still other types, such as HPV 16 and 18, do not cause visible warts but cause invisible mutations that cause some cancers, including almost all cervical cancers.

Gardasil, a recombinant vaccine against certain types of HPV, was first FDA-approved in 2006, and a newer version was approved in 2014. The newer version, Gardasil 9, covers nine types of HPV, which cause approximately 90 percent of cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. You might wonder why an Ear, Nose & Throat specialist would be interested in HPV. As it turns out, the throat is also a site of attack by the same viruses covered by Gardasil. Although tobacco use remains a major cause of cancers of other head and neck areas, HPV-related cancer of the oropharynx (back of the tongue and tonsils) is becoming increasingly common. Seventy percent of these types of cancers are caused by HPV. In fact, there was a 225% increase in this type of cancer between 1988 and 2004, and it may become more common than cervical cancer by 2020. In these cases, oral sexual contact is the understood means of virus transmission.

For unknown reasons, HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers are much more common in men, and there currently is no screening process like Pap smears (used to detect cervical cancer and pre-cancers) that can catch them early on. Additionally, there is another type of problem seen uncommonly in young children called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. This infection causes warts on the voice box that can damage and block the airway, and is caused by mother-to-child spread of genital wart HPV during birth. This problem can require numerous surgeries for control, and could be prevented by immunization against genital wart infections.

Unfortunately, worries that HPV-vaccination of young children would encourage risky teenage sexual behavior have made Gardasil politically controversial. Concern about teenage choices a few years away is often more prominent in parent’s minds than the risk of cancer thirty or forty years in the future or the risk of airway problems in future grandchildren. The early vaccination schedule currently recommended is designed to allow plenty of time to develop an immune response before sexual activity occurs. A recently published study of over 21,000 adolescent females receiving HPV vaccination showed no increase in sexually transmitted infections in girls receiving the vaccinations, disproving the idea that the vaccination encourages risk-taking. So parents, get your kids vaccinated against HPV and protect them and your future grandchildren. 

Dr. Jacob Minor is board-certified by the American Board of Otolaryngology. He practices at Seton Medical Center Harker Heights.

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womensheart

Heart Disease

  • Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for African-American 1
  • African-Americans have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than Caucasians and are less aware of their cardiovascular risk 1
  • For African-American women over the age of 18, the rate of coronary heart disease is directly related to education, income and poverty 2

Health Risks

  • More than 15% of African-American women say they are in fair or poor health, compared with 11% of Caucasian 3
  • African-American women have higher rates of obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke, and heart 1
  • 9% of African-American women are overweight or obese.1
  • 5% of African-American women do not meet the 2008 Federal Aerobic and Strengthening PA Guidelines for Adults. (consisting of either 150 minutes of moderate leisure-time physical activity  per week or 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week).1
  • 1% of African-American women have high blood pressure.1
  • African-Americans bear a disproportionate burden of stroke, hypertension-related heart disease, congestive heart failure and renal 4
  • African-American women are much more likely to lack a usual source of care and to encounter other difficulties in obtaining needed 5

Care and Treatment

  • African-Americans, both men and women, have had a long history of poor access to health care which continues 6
  • African-American women, despite their higher risk of heart disease, were 10% less likely to receive aspirin and 27% less likely to receive cholesterol-lowering drugs.7
  • African-Americans have not historically been enrolled in studies evaluating the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes of lifestyle modification in the same numbers as their white 8

 

 

  1. Mozaffarian, Dariush, MD, DrPH, FAHA, Benjamin, Emelia J., MD, ScM, FAHA, Go, Alan , MD, et. al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2016 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 2016. Pages 48 Chart 4-4; 148; 160 Chart 13-11; 319 Table 26-2.
  2. Ranjit, N,  et    Socioeconomic  Position,  Race/Ethnicity,  and  Inflammation  in  the  Multi-Ethnic  Study  of  Atherosclerosis.

Circulation 2007; 116(21): 2383-90.

  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and (2010, December). Health Care for Minority Women: Recent Findings. Program Brief (AHRQ Pub. No. 11- P005). Rockville, MD.
  2. Summary Health Statistics for S. Adults. National Health Interview Survey 2013. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10(260). 2014.
  3. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Women’s Health USA 2012. Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013.
  4. Fister, Collins C, African-American Women’s Life Issues Today, ABC-CLIO LLC,
  5. Jha AK, Varosy PD, Kanaya AM, et Differences in Medical Care and Disease Outcomes among Black and White Women With Heart Disease. Circulation 2003; 108:1089-1094.E39-e90.
  6. Dialogues on Diversifying Clinical Trials: A report from the Society for Women’s Health Research and the FDA Office of Women’s Health,

 

 

 

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